Graphics resources

See also the Graphics section of my Software I like page.

Algorithms and methods

X3D vs. U3D

This section dates from 2005–2008

The development of U3D was apparently spearheaded by companies (including Intel) who for some reason gave up on X3D. U3D has been accepted (2004 Dec) as ECMA standard 363. Supposedly ‘a key difference between the two standards is that U3D does not address issues regarding the rendering of 3D content - something that is central to X3D’ (ref). Apparently U3D can be embedded into PDF files by Adobe Acrobat 7.0 Professional, and can then be viewed interactively by the free Adobe Reader (7.0 or greater). From the example I've seen, the viewer interface is nice but simplistic.

Apparently U3D supports streaming with continuous level-of-detail; but supports only polygons (Computer, 2005 Aug).

Pro-U3D comment. The main thrust is that X3D contains too much and is too complicated.

See also discussion of OpenHSF, a separate format in the same arena as X3D and U3D.


See here for VRML/X3D viewers.

VRML examples

3-D sites

Other resources

2-D animation


3-D models

Icons and clip art

R. Funnell
Last modified: 2017-05-07 17:52:53